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s : silatindonesia@yahoogroups.com 11 April 2007 • 4:05PM -0400

[silatindonesia] Kujang (senjata khas Sunda)
by Ian Samsudin

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        Sahabat Silat,
  Pernah liat bentuk kujang? pernah pegang dan memainkan kujang?
  Kalo belum tau bentuknya ato pengen liat ato pengen memiliki, bisa pesan pada sahabat silat Iwan (anggota milis juga kok). Jangan kuatir, kujangnya (juga senjata tradisionill ainnya) memiliki kualitas terbaik..
  
  Berikut ini sedikit artikel (lama) yang kuposting ulang untuk penyegaran dan nambah wawasan ttg kujang.
  
  kalo ada yang mau koreksi ato nambahin ya dipersilahkan
  
  
  tabik
  
  I.S
  
  
  Kujang, Warisan Leluhur Tatar Pasundan
  (diambil dari www.bogor.net)
  
      Kujang adalah sebuah senjata unik, yang pada mulanya berasal dari daerah Jawa Barat, tepatnya di Pasundan (Sunda). Senjata ini dikenal dengan nama Kujang. Tak adanya kata yang pantas di dalam bahasa Inggris, sehingga Kujang dianggap sama dengan “sickle” (arit/sabit), sekalipun wujudnya menyimpang dari bentuk asli sebuah arit/sabit. Tidak sama juga dengan “scimitar” yang bentuknya cembung. Dan di Indonesia disebut “chelurit” (celurit). Kehidupan orang-orang Jawa di sebelah Timur Pulau Jawa menyebut Kujang sebagai “kudi”. Bagi mereka yang tidak mengetahui, penduduk asli Pulai Jawa tidak semuanya asli orang Jawa. Sementara di bagian Barat Pulau Jawa mayoritas diduduki oleh etnik Sunda.

Selama ini senjata Kujang telah di abadikan dalam sebuah monumen di pusat kota bekas kerajaan tatar sunda, Kerajaan Pajajaran, yakni di Kota Bogor. Bahkan keberadaan Tugu Kujang ini dapat pula disebut sebagai tuju satu-satunya yang ada di Indonesia.

Kujang penuh dengan misteri. Pasalnya, menurut cerita di dalam senjata Kujang itu memiliki sebuah kekuatan magis dengan maksud yang penuh rahasia (gaib). Menambahkan di dalam figur Kujang yang sesungguhnya, terletak/terdapat suatu filosofi Warisan Hindu. Adalah jelas sekali dari sebelumnya bahwa “pedang” mistik ini telah diciptakan lebih sebagai azimat, a symbolical object d’art, daripada sebagai sebuah senjata.

Selanjutnya, ciptaan asli dari Kujang sebenarnya terinspirasi dari sebuah alat kebutuhan pertanian. Alat ini telah dipergunakan secara luas pada abad ke-4 sampai dengan abad ke-7 Masehi. Kujang terbaru dibuat sedikit berbeda from the tilling implements fashioned by the pandai besi terkenal, Mpu Windu Sarpo, Mpu Ramayadi, dan Mpu Mercukundo, sebagaimana yang dapat kita lihat di museum lokal. Hanya saja pada abad ke-9 sampai abad ke-12 Masehi wujud dari Kujang berbentuk seperti yang dikenal sekarang ini. Pada tahun 1170 terjadi perubahan pada Kujang. Nilai Kujang sebagai sebuah jimat atau azimat telah diakui secara berangsur-angsur oleh raja dan bangsawan dari Kerajaan Pajajaran Makukuhan, khususnya pada masa pemerintahan Prabu Kudo Lalean. Pada waktu di salah satu tempat bertapanya, Kudo Lalean mendapat ilham untuk mendesain ulang bentuk dari Kujang dengan menyesuaikan bentuknya dengan bentuk dari Pulau “Djawa Dwipa”, yang dikenal sebagai jawa pada saat itu. Dengan segera
raja menugaskan keluarga kerajaan pandai besi, Mpu Windu Supo, untuk membuat mata pisau (Kujang) yang ada di dalam pikirannya. Ini telah menaruh sifat-sifat mistik dan filosofi spiritual, sebuah objek bertenaga gaib, unik di dalam desainnya, sesuatu yang pada generasi mendatang akan selalu berasosiasi dengan Kerajaan Pajajaran Makukuhan.

Setelah masa meditasinya, Mpu Windu Supo menetapkan bayangan dari Kudo Lalean (visualisasi) dan memulainya dengan membuat sebuah prototype (bentuk dasar/purwa rupa) Kujang tersebut. Kujang ini memiliki 2 buah karateristik yang mencolok bentuknya yang menyerupai Pulau Jawa dan terdapat 3 lubang di suatu tempat pada mata pisaunya.

Membuat pisau Kujang yang menyerupai bentuk Pulau Jawa mengartikan cita-cita akan penyatuan kerajaan-kerajaan kecil Jawa menjadi satu Kerajaan Makukuhan. Tiga lubang pada pisaunya untuk melambangkan Trimutri, atau tiga aspek Ketuhanan dari agama Hindu, yang juga ditaati oleh Kudo Lalean. Tiga aspek Ketuhanan menunjuk kepada Brahama, Wishnu dan Shiva, Trinitas Hindu (Trimurti) juga digambarkan/diwakilkan dengan 3 kerajaan utama pada masanya, secara berturut-turut, Kerajaan Pengging Wiraradja, berlokasi di bagian Timur Jawa Kerajaan Kambang Putih, berlokasi di north-east of island dan Kerajaan Pajajaran Makukuhan berlokasi di Barat.

Bentuk Kujang berkembang lebih jauh pada generasi mendatang. Model-model yang berbeda bermunculan. Ketika pengaruh Islam tumbuh di masyarakat, Kujang telah dibentuk ulang menyerupai hurus Arab “Syin”. Ini sebagian muslihat dari wilayah Pasundan, Prabu Kian Santang, yang merasa khawatir untuk merubah rakyat menjadi Islam.

Mengetahui bahwa Kujang menyimpan filosofi Hindu dan agama dari kultur yang ada, para raja muslim, imam, sajak (kalimat) syahadat dalam setiap manusia bersaksi akan Tuhan Yang Esa dan Nabi Muhamad sebagai utusan-Nya. Dengan mengucapkan kalimat syahadat, ia (tiap manusia) secara otomastis masuk Islam. Modifikasi Kujang memperluas area mata pisau dimana secara geografis sesuai kepada Pasundan atau Jawa bagian Barat untuk menyesuaikan diri dengan bentuk dari huruf Syin. Kujang model terbaru seharusnya dapat mengingatkan si pemiliknya dengan kesetiannya kepada Islam dan ajaranya 5 lubang ini melambangkan 5 tiang dalam Islam (rukun Islam). Dengan pengaruh agama Islam, beberapa model Kujang melukiskan inter-blending penghapusan paduan akan 2 style/gaya dasar dari Kujang yang didesain oleh Prabu Kudo Lalean dan Prabu Kian Santang.

Seiring berkembangnya zaman, saat ini Kujang biasa dipajang untuk mendekorasi rumah yang diyakini bisa membawa semacam keberuntungan, memberi perlindungan, kehormatan, dll. Kujang biasanya dipajang berpasangan di dinding mata pisau yang tajam sebelah dalam saling berhadapan. Ini merupakan tabu. Larangan, bagaimanapun, tidak seorangpun boleh mengambil fotonya sedang berdiri diantara 2 kujang tersebut, ini akan menyebabkan kematian terhadap orang tersebut didalam waktu 1 tahun tidak lebih tapi bisa kurang. Saya telah diyakinkan oleh seorang praktisioner senior Kejawen mengenai kebenaran hal ini, sebagaimana beliau telah menyaksikan sendiri.

Kenapa kejadian ini tidak diketahui secara pasti, kita mungkin menganggap ini sebagai takhayul, suatu kebetulan atau synchronicity tetapi di balik setiap fenomena hukum alam dan intelejensi/ kecerdasan bekerja kita hanya perlu mencaritahu apakah hukum tersebut dan kesiapan fikir/pemikiran tentang kecerdasan metafisika mengarah pada hukum tersebut untuk mengetahui alasan atas keganjilan. (pik/dari berbagai sumber)
  ===
  
  Kujang2
  
  The Kujang Explored: Fighting Knife of Java
The Kujang is a knife of some great interest to many and an item of curiosity to others. The Kujang also holds a high significance to certain groups of practitioners. The blade and handle hold a religious significance for the Muslims of Indonesia, particularly the Sufis.

The Kujang Explored: Origins
Originating in Western Java in the Sundanese Region, the Kujang is often referred to as a Kudi. Originating from a farm implement during the 4th to 7th centuries C.E. it didn't really take shape (pun definitely intended) until the 9th to 12th centuries C.E. looking similar to the Kujang we are familiar with today.

Prabu Kudo Lalean saw the shape of the Kujang during a vision and had Empu Windu Supo begin to create the blade of his vision. The Kujang of Kudo Lalean's vision was to be shaped after the island of Java and was meant as a unifying symbol for the entire empire. Additionally, it would embody the spiritual beliefs of the culture as well.

However, at the time, these beliefs were largely based on Hinduism. As a result, the blade was to contain the shape of Java, and also three holes or round notches too. These three holes were representative of the "Trimurti, or the three aspects of the godhead of the Hindu religion, of which Kudo Lalean was a devoted votary. The three aspects or gods referred to are Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. The Hindu trinity was also represented by the three major kingdoms of that era, respectively, the kingdom of Pengging Wiraradya, located in the east of Java; the kingdom of Kambang Putih, located north-east of the island; and the kingdom of Pajajaran Makukuhan, located in the west." (Luxamore)

Later as the religion of Islam began to become prominent throughout the empire, the Imams and teachers of Islam took this symbol of Hinduism and upon the pressing of Prabu Kian Santang, re-shaped it, converting it to a symbol of Islam. This was done primarily to begin to disseminate the doctrinal beliefs of Islam and remove the Hinduistic influences largely, and had little to do with the actual use of the weapon itself, though as you will see, it is still very effective. The major differences that the weapon undertook was the reshaping of the blade (by widening it) to represent the letter Syin that also still represented the shape of Western Java and its nationalistic representation as well and the addition of two more holes to represent the Five Pillars of Islam instead of the Trimurti.








The Kujang Explored: Design and Islam
The shape of the blade and handle derive from the Arabic phrase "bismillah er-Rahman ir-Rahim", this translates to "there is no god but Allah the Most Merciful, the Most Compassionate". Some may see this as a contradiction, a blade for killing referring to the "Mercy" and "Compassion" of Allah, however, this is far from the reality of the question, when one digs deeper into the psychological structure surrounding the use of the weapon.

First, the blade serves as a reminder to the warrior that he must act from a position of mercy and compassion. Secondly, the blade evokes two of the "99 Names of Allah" found in the Holy Quran. Finally, the blade grants the adherent a sense of the self's position in the universe as an instrument of Allah's (God's) Mercy and Compassion here on Earth.

To continue, in any warrior culture, there must be a balancing factor between the violence of the martial and the need to be of sound character. Most of what is available in the martial cultures of the west, fall far from the requirements necessary in filling this void. The spirituality that used to be common in warrior training is treated as passé or even worse, as a novelty. This has lead to training that is both incomplete and hollow. Thankfully, many silat practitioners recognize this need. Additionally, within silat there is at least one shining example of this necessary connection, the training in the use of the Indonesian weapon, the Kujang.

Aside from the deep mundane training of the physical use of the weapon, the Kujang serves as a reminder to us. We must begin all positive actions with the focus of "bismillah/In the name of Allah". This reminds us that all of our actions must be in accordance with the will of Allah. With this in mind, we also must face the fact that we are human and therefore we are prone to failure. In the heat of combat, we may falter and follow the guidance of our nafs (lower self/ego) instead of focusing on Allah. In this instance, we still have the Kujang as a reminder. "er-Rahman, ir-Rahim" reminds us that we must act with mercy and compassion. The Kujang can therefore be seen as analogous to the Jihad Al-Akbar, or the Greater Jihad. This is the constant struggle against, in the words of the Prophet Muhammed (saws), " the greatest enemy of mankind that resides in our own ribcage".

The ingenious use of the Kujang in Pencak Silat Zulfikari is coupled to the Jihad Al-Akbar via the teachings of es-Seyyid es-Shaykh Taner Ansari(RA) in Tariqa Qadiri-Rifa'i. Jihad al-Akbar means the great struggle which refers to the struggle against one's own empirical ego. This is the basis of the process of becoming a completed human being. In this training, the mental, spiritual and physical training is not separated. The training of the body is inextricably linked to the spiritual and mental training. Relegating the nafs to their proper subservient position allows us to realize our connection to Allah ta'ala. Finally, we come to the link between Pencak Silat and Islam. Al-Fatiha is the key to Islam. Contained in this beautiful short Sura (chapter) is the entire secret of the Holy Quran. Fatiha gives us the entire outline of the proper warrior life. The Kujang is an analogy of Fatiha. In short, the Kujang is symbolic of the key to understanding Islam and the warrior
ethos embodied in the noble code of futuwah (Islamic Chivalry). The Kujang is a beautiful curved knife that follows the outline of the Arabic phrase "bismillah, er-Rahman, ir-Rahim". The undeniable truth evident in this phrase frees the warrior from slavery to his nafs. This freedom from slavery allows us to make the choice of completely submitting to the will of Allah and entering true freedom. This freedom is from the base animal that lives within all of us. This is mankind's true struggle and the Kujang is our battle standard in the jihad against the nafs.

The Kujang Explored: Blade
The blade is of an interesting design. The point of the weapon is in direct line (in most models) with the pommel. This provides stability in a thrusting or stabbing attack. The primary cutting surface of the weapon is divided into two parts. The first of which is the "leading edge" found just below the point. This edge possesses a slight curve. This curve aids in a simple cut insofar as the wrist of the user does not need to bend in order to affect a cut. The arced cutting edge traps, cuts and tears a target when it is employed. The interesting matter about the two primary cutting surfaces is that force received by the leading edge has a tendency to be drawn into the curved cutting surface. This leads us to the hook that is found at the end of the curved cutting surface. This hook aids in trapping, puncturing and tearing an opponent's flesh. In the hands of a skilled exponent, the hook can be used to bind an adversary's weapon and disarm him.

The Kujang Explored: Spine
The spine or heel of the weapon is rigid and strong. This is used to provide a lever in grappling and manipulating the weapon in close quarters. Immediately above the heel, you will find a serration. This serration is quite obviously a tool to rip causing mostly superficial wounds. Although the wounds caused by the serration are superficial, when taken into the whole of the Kujang's impact upon an adversary the serration becomes quite telling. In addition, this serration aids in creating a wound cannel that will make for a more speedy evacuation of the blade from a wound. Above the serration, you will find the back edge. This back edge is used in a counter offensive manner quite similar to some western and Filipino systems of blade work.

The Kujang Explored: Bridge
Binding the cutting edge to the handle is the bridge. The bridge is used to control the weapon using your thumb and/or forefinger. The hook and the reverse curve of the blade protect the fingers on the bridge.

The Kujang Explored: Handle
Finally, we examine the handle. The handles can be quite ornate in some versions and in others very plain. What will be found in all is that the pommel is curved slightly outward and down from the line of the handle. This is used as a lever to twist the blade in a wound to cause a more grievous injury. In addition, this will also aid the evacuation of the blade from the wound. Furthermore, the curved pommel creates a more stable grip upon the Kujang's handle when it is covered in some slippery substance, in the spirit of this discussion we will assume that it is blood and or other related floods and tissues.

The Kujang Explored: Usage
The use of this weapon in Pencak Silat Zulfakir involves an interesting focus on "counter-trapping". By redirecting force and taking advantage of natural structural weaknesses of the human body the exponent will be able to press an attack even after the initial engagement has been negated. To explore this facet of the Kujang would involve a rather lengthy article itself and would necessitate photos to try to illuminate the intricate and complex application of this tool. This weapon is an integral part of the warrior culture of futuwah (spiritual chivalry) associated with Sufism in Indonesia.

The Kujang Explored: Closing
The Kujang embodies the concepts of futuwah as a "first lesson". It has been described as "the Muslim answer to the Hindu Kris". Many Muslims did not feel comfortable, due to the tenants of their religion, using a weapon in which a strong amount of animistic thought is attributed to. To remedy this situation the Kujang stands forth as a weapon for war and tool for self-discovery.
  
  Kujang--the Talismanic Sickle

There is a unique weapon that originates in Western Java, in the Pasundan (Sundanese) region. This weapon is called "kujang," (pron. "koo-jaang.") Lacking the proper English equivalent for this we have used the term, "sickle," eventhough its form somewhat deviates from the true shape of a sickle. Neither does it resemble the "scimitar" which curves convexly. In Indonesian a sickle is actually called "chelurit." The Javanese living in the eastern half of the Java island refers to the kujang as "kudi." To those who are uninformed, the indigenous people of the island of Java are not all "Javanese." The western part of the island is populated by a major ethnic group called "Sundanese." The kujang is the sole monument of the city of Bogor here in Indonesia.

The kujang is filled with mysteries. It is said that it carries within its form a magickal force with a mystical purpose. Embodied within its original figure lied the philosophy of the ancient Sundanese with its Hindu heritage. It is evident from the foregoing that this mystic blade was created to be more of a talisman, a symbolical objet d'art, rather than a weapon. This is especially so regarded in contemporary times.

The original creation of the kujang was actually inspired by a utensil used in farming. This utensil was widely used in the 4th to 7th centuries AD. The newly created kujang differed slightly from the tilling implements fashioned by the famed blacksmiths, Mpu Windusarpo, Mpu Ramayadi, and Mpu Mercukundo, as can be seen in the local museums. It was only in the 9th to 12th century that the form of the kujang took the shape that we are so familiar with today. In the year 1170 there was a change in the kujang. Its value as an amulet or talisman was gradually being recognized by the rulers and nobilities of the Pajajaran Makukuhan kingdom, especially during the reign of Prabu Kudo Lalean. During one of his spiritual retreats, Kudo Lalean was instructed through a psychic vision to re-design the form of the kujang to conform to the shape of the island of "Djawa Dwipa," as Java was called in those days. Immediately the sovereign king commissioned the royal blacksmith, Mpu Windu
Supo, to fashion the blade seen in his vision. It was to become a weapon embodying mystical qualities and a spiritual philosophy; a magickal object, unique in its design, one that future generations would always associate with the Pajajaran Makukuhan kingdom.

After a period of meditation, Mpu Windu Supo confirmed the vision of Kudo Lalean and commenced with the fashioning of a prototype of the Kujang. It was to have two prominent characteristics: the shape of the island of Java and three holes or round notches somewhere in the blade.

Constructing the kujang blade into the shape of Java was interpreted to mean the ideal of unification of all the petty kingdoms of Java into a single empire, headed by the Makukuhan king. The three holes or round notches was to represent the Trimurti, or the three aspects of the godhead of the Hindu religion, of which Kudo Lalean was a devoted votary. The three aspects or gods referred to are Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. The Hindu trinity was also represented by the three major kingdoms of that era, respectively, the kingdom of Pengging Wiraradya, located in the east of Java; the kingdom of Kambang Putih, located north-east of the island; and the kingdom of Pajajaran Makukuhan, located in the west..

The shape of the kunjang evolved further in later generations. Different models appeared. When the influence of Islam grew upon the masses, the kujang was re-shaped to resemble the Arabic letter "Syin." This was largely the stratagem of the sovereign of the Pasundan region, Prabu Kian Santang, who was anxious to convert the populace to Islam.

Knowing that the kujang embodied the Hindu philosophy and religion of the existing culture, the muslim rulers, imams and teachers, anxious to propagate Islam and dessiminate its doctrines, re-modeled the kujang to represent the basis of their religion. Syin is the first letter of the syahadat verse of which one testifies to the witnessing of the sole God and the Prophet Muhammad (blessed in his name) as the messenger. By reciting the syahadat verse, one is automatically converted to Islam. The modification of the kujang broadened the area of the blade which geographically corresponds to the Pasundan or western region of Java to conform to the shape of the letter Syin. The newly-designed kujang was supposed to remind the possessor of the object of his allegiance to Islam and to the obedience of its teachings. Five holes or round notches in the kujang replaced the three of the Trimurti. They represented the five pillars of Islam.

With the influence of the Islamic religion, some kujang models portray the inter-blending of the two basic styles as designed by Prabu Kudo Lalean and Prabu Kian Santang.

Nowadays, the kujang is often decorated in homes as it is believed to bring about luck, protection, honor, etc. They are displayed in pairs on walls with the inner edge facing each other. There is a taboo, however--no one is to be photographed standing in-between them as this would somehow cause the death of that person within a year. I have been assured by a senior practitioner of Kejawen the truth of this, as he had witnessed this himself. Why this occurs is not known for certain, we might shrug it off as superstition, coincidence or synchronicity but behind every phenomenon cosmic laws and intelligences are at work; we just need to discover what those laws are and the mind-set of those metaphysical intelligences directing those laws to know the reason for the anomaly.

>From the occult side, like the keris, another weapon used by the indo-malayan natives, the kujang was often consecrated with magickal power and familiar spirits attached for specific purposes, such as the protection against psychic attack. Because of the inherent power of the kujang in conjunction with the presence of its spirit guardians, the well-informed natives revere them as sacred objects.

Written by Guru Brandt Hassan Ali and Guru Sean Stark
Copyright 2003 Silat now! e-zine
www.combat-silat.net
  
  It was since long prior to the Hindu Javanese period of civilization that Indonesian empu's or master smiths have produced the kudi (Javanese) or the kujang (sundanese) as a weapon of some mystical importance (as a kind of tumbal). Certain offerings, sajen-sajen, were carefully prepared for the service of the kujang (being the medium of the ancestral spirits) as much to evoke at regular times the 'good spirits' from the other world.

Rituals were also carried out in due time, so that the people would be blessed with good health and fortune. The solemn ceremonies preceding the composition of works of art and its manifestations evidently prove that the Indonesian artists are conscious of the fact that art is closely related to the supernatural. The people of the past held the same opinion as they had a more or less primitive outlook upon life, which is generally referred to as a kind of animism. This animistic belief is founded so far on three basic principles:

a. the belief in the existence of a 'soul matter', which can incorporate into a human body or a definite object, and which gives life to everything existing.

b. the belief in an individual soul, which continues its existence after death.

c. the belief in spiritual beings and deities, having human qualities, which are supposed to be able to influence mankind either harmfully or beneficially.

Already Plato (427 - 347 B.C), the Greek philosopher, thought that all natural objects were imperfect representations or symbols of perfect divine ideas. But on the other hand, according to other philosophers, man endeavors through art to approach closer to these divine ideas than nature might accomplish to the beings of things, the transcending, ideal realities, than nature. And, this explains how, for instance, a painter or a sculptor succeeds in composing a. perfect picture of an object having beauty defects. Our irresistible impulse towards the perfect, beautiful and harmonic must, therefore, stand in direct correlation with the beings of mankind in whom has been created a notion of the existence of higher, esoteric spheres and, who, consciously or unconsciously, takes his inner feelings as the basis for every artistic endeavor. Religion or belief is the translation of the mind, and art the interpretation of the senses of this metaphysical notion.

In this case the relation of religion to art is clearly evident from the meaning of each symbol with the so called pamor motifs, as also with the carvings of keris grips, and the various forms of the kudi.

Form of the Kudi

Various forms of the kudi or the kujang are found in places scattered over the country (the Alor islands, Java, Madura, Bali, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Kalimantan). and it seems that the bronze axes ever made during the Dong Song period before the beginning of our era have given form to the first kudi's or kujang's of a later period.

As said before, the most ordinary kudi in Java and elsewhere resembles a deer's horn (tanduk kijang) branched into two side antlers. Some other kudi's look like a bird-head as regards its upper part. Pamor or damascening art is sometimes applied to the technique of forging with the production of the so called 'kudi pusaka'. Very scarce are those ones embellished with a cut out representing some wayang face in profile, which can be seen on the back of the blade's top (Semar figure).

As a pusaka heirloom, the kudi is once kept in the collection of sacred weapons belonging to the kraton of the sultan Sepuh of Cirebon, and another one to the kraton of the sultan of Jogjakarta. The kudi belonging to the collection of the late Pangeran of Pamekasan (± 1853) is performed with 30 holes in the blade. The number of holes has its special meaning, and it is said that this corresponds with the number of merits of its bearer. Sometimes, the holes are filled with gold or with the so called besi kuning, which contains a supernatural force of some sort. Some explications are given on the subject, but they are rather confusing and no definite interpretation can be given till now.

As a sacred weapon, the kudi can be seen in the hands of hermits on bas-reliefs of the famous Borobudhur temple in Central Java. It was also recorded that king Adityawarman (the first king of Minangkabau) has ever kept a kind of kudi as a state-weapon (1345-1375). The well known and mighty Prabu Siliwangi, king of Pajajaran has also possessed a sacred kujang, and this inspires the Siliwangi Army division of today to use it as a symbol of power and strength in the emblems. (3)

Not unlike the keris pusaka, which has found its way throughout the life stories of our national heroes (a.o. Pangeran Diponegoro, Prabu Brawijaya, Untung Suropati, and others), so did the kudi or kujang, in a certain way, play its role as a weapon of mystical sense and as a symbol of sovereignty.

Later on, this curious arm was made only after special order of the raja or the sultan concerned, and after first being inspired by the deities. The kudi forms part of the royal collection of sacred weapons, known by the name of ampitan in the Principalities of Central Java; it is a state-weapon of primary rank.

However, after the propagation of the Islam since the 13th century in Indonesia, all forms of idolatry and superstition were soon in contradiction with the principles of the new religion. Hence, the proto type of the sacred kudi (kujang pusaka) gave only reason to some unknown metal workers toward the ingenious idea to use the basic structure of the weapon, merely for practical purposes. By deviating somewhat from the original form, a similar piece of work in the shape of a deer's horn (with two branches) was created yet bearing the same name soon as the master smiths found that the main form of the kudi should lend itself excellently to both chopping and paring some tough materials. In some way, this succeeding tool can be used effectively, for example, in taking out the copra form its tough rind and afterwards from its stone hard shell (batok kelapa). Nevertheless, it is evident from the foregoing that in whatever situation the kudi might be considered and adopted by the
mass, the weapon has continued to exist although in another function than before and to develop further into various forms according to the traditional art of the people.

During the ages of social and cultural progress in Indonesia, the kudi has changed gradually of its primary function, namely from a weapon of magic religious sense during the remotest past into a practical tool of the present. Beside the name of khodiq, the tool is also called caluk in Madura, and calok in Javanese. (2)
The main difference between the kudi pusaka (as a state weapon) and the ordinary kudi (as a tool) lies only in the absence of pamor damascenings with the latter, as its intricate technique of forging has disappeared since the decline of the Majapahit kingdom.

Footnotes

(1) - to compare also with the verb kampit meaning to own something, to take possession of

(2) - In a very special case the word caluk (from calui in Chinese) indicates a go-between who unfairly used to chop the smooth and easy course of business in order to make profit.

(3) - Some experts in this field are inclined to associate the meaning of 'kujang' with that of 'kijang' by assuming that some corruption could take place within this scope, for, the main form of the ordinary kudi yet bears witness of itself.

Written by Guru Brandt Hassan Ali and Guru Sean Stark
Copyright 2003 Silat now! e-zine
www.combat-silat.net
  
  
  

      
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